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Search Engine Optimization

21/02/2012 17:19

 

 SEARCH ENGINE

 

A search engine is specially designed to search for information and resources on the WWW and FTP servers. The information and the resources may consists of WebPages, images, files, documents or any other items. Some search engine also provides data mining in data bases and open directories. Some examples of search engines are:

Google, Bing, Altavista, Inbox, Ask, Yahoo, AOL, Baidu, Lycos, MSN search etc.

 

Types of Various Search Engine

 

Brief Description About Search Engines:

 

Google

http://www.google.com/

Google has a well-deserved reputation as the top choice for those searching the web. The crawler-based service provides both comprehensive coverage of the web along with great relevancy. It's highly recommended as a first stop in your hunt for whatever you are looking for.

 

Yahoo

http://www.yahoo.com/

Launched in 1994, Yahoo is the web's oldest "directory," a place where human editors organize web sites into categories. However, in October 2002, Yahoo made a giant shift to using Google's crawler-based listings for its main results.

 

MSN Search/Bing

http://search.msn.com/ or http://www.bing.com

Microsoft is known for constantly reworking its software products until they get them right, and MSN Search is a shining example of the company putting that same effort into an online product. In particular, the company has its own team of editors that monitors the most popular searches being performed and then hand-picks sites that are believed to be the most relevant. After performing a search, "Popular Topics" shown below the search box on the results page are also suggestions built largely by editors to guide you into making a more refined search. When appropriate, search results may also feature links to encyclopedia content from Microsoft Encarta or news headlines, at the top of the page.

 

AOL Search

http://aolsearch.aol.com/ (internal) or http://search.aol.com/(external)

AOL Search provides users with editorial listings that come Google's crawler-based index. Indeed, the same search on Google and AOL Search will come up with very similar matches. So, why would you use AOL Search? Primarily because you are an AOL user. The "internal" version of AOL Search provides links to content only available within the AOL online service. In this way, you can search AOL and the entire web at the same time. The "external" version lacks these links. Why wouldn't you use AOL Search? If you like Google, many of Google's features such as "cached" pages are not offered by AOL Search.

 

Ask Jeeves

http://www.askjeeves.com/

Ask Jeeves initially gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as being the "natural language" search engine that let you search by asking questions and responded with what seemed to be the right answer to everything.

 

AltaVista

http://www.altavista.com/

AltaVista is the oldest crawler-based search engine on the web. It opened in December 1995 and for several years was the "Google" of its day, in terms of providing relevant results and having a loyal group of users that loved the service.

 

Netscape Search

http://search.netscape.com/

Owned by AOL Time Warner, Netscape Search uses Google for its main listings, just as does AOL's other major search site, AOL Search. So why use Netscape Search rather than Google? Unlike with AOL Search, there's no compelling reason to consider it. The main difference between Netscape Search and Google is that Netscape Search will list some of Netscape's own content at the top of its results. Netscape also has a completely different look and feel than Google. If you like either of these reasons, then try Netscape Search. Otherwise, you're probably better off just searching at Google.

 

AllTheWeb.com

http://www.alltheweb.com/

An excellent crawler-based search engine, All The Web provides both comprehensive coverage of the web and outstanding relevancy. If you tried Google and didn't find it, All The Web should probably be next on your list. Indeed, it's a first stop search engine, for some. In addition to web page results, AllTheWeb.com provides the ability to search for news stories, pictures, video clips, MP3s and FTP files.

 

HotBot

http://www.hotbot.com/

HotBot provides easy access to the web's four major crawler-based search engines: AllTheWeb.com/FAST, Google, Inktomi and Teoma, all of which are described elsewhere on this page. Nevertheless, it's a fast, easy way to get different web search "opinions" in one place.

 

Lycos

http://www.lycos.com/

Lycos is one of the oldest search engines on the web, launched in 1994. It ceased crawling the web for its own listings in April 1999 and instead uses crawler-based results provided by AllTheWeb.

 

Teoma

http://www.teoma.com/

Teoma is a crawler-based search engine owned by Ask Jeeves. It has a smaller index of the web than its rival crawler-competitors Google, AllTheWeb.com, Inktomi and AltaVista.

 

Inktomi

http://www.inktomi.com/

Among the major search engines, Inktomi is the second-oldest crawler. It briefly operated as an experimental search engine at UC Berkeley. However, the creators then formed their own company in 1996 with the same name and gained their first customer, HotBot, in the middle of that year. The company then pursued a strategy of "powering" other search engines, rather than running its own branded service for the public.

 

LookSmart

http://www.looksmart.com/

LookSmart is a human-compiled directory of web sites. The company does operate its own web site, but this really isn't intended for the public to use. Instead, similar to Inktomi, LookSmart provides its results to other search engines that need listings.

 

Open Directory

http://dmoz.org/

The Open Directory uses volunteer editors to catalog the web. Formerly known as NewHoo, it was launched in June 1998. It was acquired by AOL Time Warner-owned Netscape in November 1998, and the company pledged that anyone would be able to use information from the directory through an open license arrangement.

 

Overture

http://www.overture.com/

Formerly called GoTo until late 2001, Overture is an extremely popular paid placement search engine that provides ads to many of the search engines listed above.

 

WiseNut

http://www.wisenut.com/

Like Teoma, WiseNut is a crawler-based search engine that attracted attention when it appeared on the scene in 2001. Like Teoma, WiseNut features good relevancy. Unlike Teoma, WiseNut has a large database, making it nearly as comprehensive as Google, AllTheWeb and Inktomi. However, the WiseNut database has consistently been months out of date. The search engine is supposed to be regularly updated sometime in 2003, when WiseNut's owner LookSmart is promising to revamp the engine. LookSmart bought WiseNut in April 2002. If the revamp happens, then WiseNut may deliver on its initial promise.

 

Performance of Search Engine

 

The search engine maintain real-time information by running algorithms on a web crawler.

Let us consider about the performance of Search engine:

Search engines perform several activities in order to deliver search results

 

Crawling:

It is the process of fetching all the web pages linked to a web site. This task is performed by software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, as is the case with Google).

 

Indexing:

It is the process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page to particular keywords.

 

Processing:

When a search request comes, the search engine processes it . i.e. it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database.

 

Calculating Relevancy:

Since it is likely that more than one pages contains the search string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index to the search string.

 

Retrieving Results:

The last step in search engines' activities is retrieving the best matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! often update their relevancy algorithm dozens of times per month. When you see changes in your rankings it is due to an algorithmic shift or something else outside of your control.

Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor differences between their relevancy algorithms lead to major changes in results relevancy.

 

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

SEO  is the technique of writing the viewable text on a web page in such a way that it reads well for the surfer, and also targets specific search terms. Its purpose is to rank highly in the search engines for the targeted search terms.

As well as the viewable text, SEO Copywriting usually optimizes other on-page elements for the targeted search terms. These include the Title, Description and Keywords tags, headings and alt text.

The idea behind SEO Copywriting is that search engines want genuine content pages and not additional pages (often called "doorway pages") that are created for the sole purpose of achieving high rankings.

 

Search Engine Rank:

When you search any keyword using a search engine then it displays thausand of results found in its database. A page ranking is measured by the position of web pages displayed in the search engine results. If Search engine is putting your web page on first position then your web page rank will be number 1 and it will be assumed as with a high rank.

SEO is the process of designing and developing a web site to attend a high rank in search engine results.

 

On-page and Off-page SEO

Conceptually, there are two ways of doing SEO

On-Page SEO- This includes providing good content, good keywords selection. putting keywords on correct places, giving appropriate title to every page etc.

Off-Page SEO - This includes link building, increasing link popularity by submitting in open directories, search engines, link exchange tec.

 

Popular Search Engine 2012 Rank

  1. Google (900,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  2. Bing (165,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  3. Yahoo! (160,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  4. Ask (125,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  5. Aol (33,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  6. Mywebsearch (19,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  7. Lycos(4,300,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  8. Dogpile (2,900,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  9. Webcrawler (2,700,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  10. Info.com (2,600,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  11. Infospace(2,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  12. Goodsearch (1,500,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  13. Search.com (1,450,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  14. Excite (1,150,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  15. Altavista (700,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)

These are the popular search engines in the recent year 2012.

 

 

Article by:

Er. Soumya Sourabha Patnaik

 

Bhangarh - The Most Haunted Fort Of India

21/06/2011 15:55

The ruins of Bhangarh Fort in the Rajasthan state in India are known for being the most hunted place in this south Asian country. While it’s understandable that not all people believe in ghosts, there are warnings at all entry points to the Bhangarh Fort advising people not to venture into the city at night. In fear that something terrible could happen, some of the signs posted by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) not only advise against, but literally prohibit visitors from entering Bhangarh Fort at night. The sign reads in Indian language: “Entering the borders of Bhangarh before sunrise and after sunset is strictly prohibited.” If you are a ghost hunter or like visiting mysterious places, especially those known to be haunted by ghosts, then Bhangarh Fort deserves a solid spot on your “Must Visit Before I Die” list.

 

The Bhangarh Story

The story (and the history) of the Bhangarh began in the year of 1573 when the fortress was established. Built by Raja Bhagawant Das – the ruler of the city of Amber, Bhangarh Fort has become the residence of Madho Singh, ruler’s second son who fought alongside his father and brother in many wars. The decline of Bhangarh Fort started in 1630 after Chhatr Singh, son of Madho Singh got killed in a violent attack. The decline continued until 1783 when the fortress and the city were completely abandoned following that year’s famine.

The Bhangarh Myths

According to one of the myths, Bhangarh was cursed by Guru Balu Nath (Baba Balanath), who originally sanctioned the construction but warned that his sacred meditating place lies nearby and should the palace reach the size which would cast a shadow big enough to reach his forbidden retreat, the city would fall into ruin. Ignorant of the warning, Ajab Singh – one of dynasty’s descendants raised the palace to a height that cast the shadow on the Balu Nath’s retreat and the city was cursed.
Another myth talks about princess Ratnavati who was so beautiful she had no match in all of Rajasthan. Marriage proposals came coming, but one day she was spotted by a tantric named Singha Sevra who was so bewildered by her beauty, he decided to use his black magic to get to her. As he was spying on the princess, he saw her servant buying perfumes for her. The tantric used the opportunity and put a black magic spell on the lotion which was supposed to draw the princess to him upon initial use.
His intentions were uncovered by a person loyal to the princess who informed her of bewitched lotion. The princess took the bottle and smashed it against the rock which came to life and rolled over the tantric killing him. Before he died, he laid a curse on entire land which came to be the following year during battle between Bhangarh and Ajabgarh. All who dwelt in Bhangarh died, including the princess.
There are several other myths and legends that explain the reasons why the fort was abandoned overnight and never re-inhabited, but they all revolve around the fact that the city was cursed and is now haunted by ghosts.
Even though Bhangarh is deserted at night, locals report that strange noises, including music and dancing can be heard coming from the ruins of the fort. The access to Bhangarh is regulated by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and by their rule, it is illegal to enter Bhangarh at night. However, several people did make an entry during forbidden hours just to get a sense of thrill associated with being in one of world’s most haunted places. Bhangarh Fort offers superior opportunities for mystery and ghost hunters to experience the ultimate adrenaline rush. The restless spirit of the magician who cursed the land watches over Bhangarh from a nearby hill during the day and comes down at night in search of a ghost of his beloved princess. Welcome to the world of Ghost Tourism.

Bhangarh Fort Location

Abandoned fortress of Bhangarh is located between the Pink City of Jaipur – the capital of Rajasthan and Alwar, a city in the same state located about 160 km south of Delhi. Rajasthan is located in the north-west of India and it’s country’s largest state.

Check out video of Bhangarh:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2E3Eem_53D8

 

Thanks for Reading my Article...

Warm Regards;

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

 


 

BSNL JTO Placement Papers

19/06/2011 17:33

Solved Sample Paper For BSNL JTO Examination

 

1. One of the following statement which is true for relative dielectric constant is -
a) It is dimensionless
b) It is not equal to unity for vacuum
c) It?s value for all substances is less than one
d) None
Answer is :- It is dimensionless


2. Pure metals generally have-
a) high conductivity and low temperature coefficient
b) high conductivity and large temperature coefficient
c) low conductivity and zero temperature coefficient
d) low conductivity and high temperature coefficient
Answer is :- high conductivity and large temperature coefficient


3. For small size, high frequency coils, the most common core material is
a) Air
b) Ferrite
c) Powdered ion
d) Steel
Answer is :- Air


4. For an abrupt junction Varactor diode, the dependence of device capacitance (C) on applied reverse bias (V) is given by-
a) C a V1/3
b) C a V-1/3
c) C a V1/2
d) C a V-1/2
Answer is :- C a V-1/3

5. A superconductor is a-
a) A material showing perfect conductivity and Meissner effect below a critical temperature
b) A conductor having zero resistance
c) A perfect conductor with highest dimagnetic susceptibility
d) A perfect conductor which becomes resistive when the current density through it exceeds a critical value
Answer is :-A material showing perfect conductivity and Meissner effect below a critical temperature

6. When a semiconductor based temperature transducer has a temperature coefficient of ?2500 mV/0C then this transducer is indeed a-
a) Thermistor
b) Forward biased pn junction diode
c) Reverse biased pn junction diode
d) FET
Answer is :- Forward biased pn junction diode

7. The location of lightning arrestor is -
a) Near the transformer
b) Near the circuit breaker
c) Away from the transformer
d) None
Answer is :- Near the transformer


8. Time constant of an RC circuit increases if the value of the resistance is -
a) Increased
b) Decreased
c) Neither a nor b
d) Both a and b
Answer is :- Increased


9. Intrinsic semiconductors are those which -
a) Are available locally
b) Are made of the semiconductor material in its purest from
c) Have more electrons than holes
d) Have zero energy gaps
Answer is :- Are made of the semiconductor material in its purest from


10. The primary control on drain current in a JFET is exerted by -
a) Channel resistance
b) Size of depletion regions
c) Voltage drop across channel
d) Gate reverse bias
Answer is :- Gate reverse bias


11. The electrical conductivity of metals which is expressed in ohm-1 m-1 is of the order of -
a) 1010
b) 105
c) 10-4
d) 10-6
Answer is :- 105


12. When biased correctly, a zener diode ?
a) acts as a fixed resistance
b) has a constant voltage across it
c) has a constant current passing through it
d) never overheats
Answer is :- has a constant voltage across it


13. The current amplification factor adc is given by ?
a) IC/IE
b) IC/IB
c) IB/IC
d) IB/IC
Answer is :- IC/IE


14. Compared to bipolars, FETs have-
a) high input impedance
b) low input impedance
c) same input impedance
d) none
Answer is :- high input impedance


15. The source-drain channel of JFET is -
a) ohmic
b) bilateral
c) unilateral
d) both a and b
Answer is :- both a and b


16. diac is equivalent to a -
a) Pair of SCRs
b) Pair of four layer SCRs
c) Diode and two resistors
d) Triac width
Answer is :- Pair of four layer SCRs


17. When a sample of N type semiconductor has electron density of 6.25 ? 1011 /cm3 at 300K and if the intrinsic concentration of carriers in this sample is 2.5 ? 1013/cm3 then the hole density will be ?
a) 106/cm3
b) 103/ cm3
c) 1010/ cm3
d) 1012/ cm3
Answer is :- 103/ cm3


18. The statement ?In any network of linear impedances, the current flowing at any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents caused to flow at that point by each of the sources of emf taken separately with all other emf?s reduced to zero? represents -
a) Kirchhoff?s law
b) Norton?s theorem
c) Thevenin?s theorem
d) Superposition theorem
Answer is :- Superposition theorem


19. One of the following modes which has the characteristics of attenuation becoming less as the frequency is increased and is attractive at microwave frequencies of circular cylindrical wave guides is ?
a) TE1 mode
b) TM01 mode
c) TE01 mode
d) Higher order mode
Answer is :- TE01 mode


20. A two-port network is symmetrical if ?
a) z11z22 ? z12z21 = 1
b) h11h22 ? h12h21 = 1
c) AD ? BC = 1
d) y11y22 ? y12y21 = 1
Answer is :-AD ? BC = 1


21. For transmission line load matching over a range of frequencies, it is best to use a-
a) balun
b) broad band directional coupler
c) double stub
d) single stub of adjustable position
Answer is :- double stub


22. The poles and zeros of a driving point function of a network are simple and interlace on the negative real axis with a pole closest to the origin. It can be realised -
a) by an LC network
b) as an RC driving point impedance
c) as an RC driving point admittance
d) only by an RLC network
Answer is :- only by an RLC network


23. Poles and zeros of a driving point function of a network are simple and interlace on the jw axis. The network consists of elements ?
a) R and C
b) L and C
c) R and L
d) R, L and C
Answer is :- L and C


24. For a two port reciprocal network, the output open circuit voltage divided by the input current is equal to ?
a) B
b) Z12
c) ?
d) h12
Answer is :- Z12


25. In a short electric doublet the radiation properties are so that-
a) The induction field diminishes as the square root of the distance and is only appreciable in the vicinity of the conductor.
b) In the radiation, magnetic field is minimum when the current is maximum.
c) The radiation resistance of a short doublet antenna is extremely high.
d) Mean rate of power through a unit area of spherical sphere surrounding this doublet is proportional to the square of the elemental length, other factors remaining constant.
Answer is :-Mean rate of power through a unit area of spherical sphere surrounding this doublet is proportional to the square of the elemental length, other factors remaining constant.


26. The frequency modulated (FM) radio frequency range is nearly -
a) 250 ?300 MHz
b) 150 ? 200 MHz
c) 90 ? 105 MHz
d) 30-70 MHz
Answer is :-90 ? 105 MHz


27. In an underground cable the distortion in the transmission of carrier frequency can be eliminated by using -
a) Inductive loading
b) Resistive loading
c) Capacitive loading
d) Shielding
Answer is :- Inductive loading


28. The characteristic impedance of a transmission line with inductance 0.294 mH /m and capacitance 60 pF/m is -
a) 49 W
b) 60 W
c) 70 W
d) 140 W
Answer is :- 70 W


30. For a quarter wavelength ideal transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 ohms and load impedance 100 ohms, the input impedance will be ?
a) 25W
b) 50W
c) 100W
d) 150W
Answer is :- 25W


31. The depth of penetration or skin depth for an electromagnetic field of frequency ?f? in a conductor of resistivity r and permeability m is-
a) inversely proportional to r and f and directly proportional to m
b) directly proportional to r and inversely proportional to f and m
c) directly proportional to f and inversely proportional to r and m
d) inversely proportional to r and m and directly proportional to f
Answer is :- directly proportional to r and inversely proportional to f and m


32. When an antenna has a gain of 44dB then assuming that the main beam of the antenna is circular in cross-section the beam width will be -
a) 0.4456 0
b) 1.44560
c) 2.44560
d) 3.44560
Answer is :- 2.44560


33. Lens antennas used for microwaves are usually made of -
a) Polystyrene
b) Glass of low refractive index
c) Paraboloid surfaces
d) Dielectric media having large refractive index
Answer is :- Polystyrene


34. One of the following types of instrument which is an electrometer is -
a) Electrodynamometer
b) PMMC
c) Electrostatic
d) Moving iron
Answer is :- Electrostatic


35. When an ac current of 5A and dc current of 5A flow simultaneously through a circuit then which of the following statement is true ?
a) An ac ammeter will read less than 10A but more than 5A
b) An ac ammeter will read only 5A
c) A dc ammeter will read 10A
d) A dc ammeter will read zero
Answer is :- An ac ammeter will read less than 10A but more than 5A


36. When Q factor of a circuit is high, then -
a) power factor of the circuit is high
b) impedance of the circuit is high
c) bandwidth is large
d) none of these
Answer is :- none of these


37. The resolution of a logic analyser is -
a) the maximum number of input channels
b) the minimum duration of the glitch it can capture
c) it?s internal clock period
d) the minimum amplitude of input signal it can display
Answer is :- the minimum amplitude of input signal it can display


38. A memoryless system is ?
a) causal
b) not causal
c) nothing can be said
d) none
Answer is :- causal


39. An air capacitor is a ?
a) time variant
b) active device
c) time invariant
d) time invariant and passive device
Answer is :-time invariant and passive device


40. Thermistors are made of -
a) pure metals
b) pure insulators
c) sintered mixtures of metallic oxides
d) pure semiconductor
Answer is :- sintered mixtures of metallic oxides


41. Pirani gauge is used to measure ?
a) very low pressures
b) high pressures
c) pressures in the region of 1 atm
d) fluid flow
Answer is :- very low pressures


42. These circuits converts input power at one frequency to output power at a different frequency through one stage conversion ?
a) AC voltage controllers
b) Cyclo converters
c) Phase controlled rectifiers
d) Inverters
Answer is :-Cyclo converters


43. In a forward voltage Triggering thyristor changes from ?
a) off state to on state
b) on state to off state
c) on state to on state
d) off state to off state
Answer is :- off state to on state


44. A thyristor, when triggered, will change from forward blocking state to conduction state if its anode to cathode voltage is equal to -
a) peak repetitive off state forward voltage
b) peak working off state forward voltage
c) peak working off state reverse voltage
d) peak non-repetitive off state forward voltage
Answer is :- peak working off state forward voltage


45. Gate characteristic of a thyristor-
a) is a straight line passing through origin
b) is of the type Vg = a + bIg
c) is a curve between Vg and Ig
d) has a spread between two curves of Vg ? Ig
Answer is :-has a spread between two curves of Vg ? Ig


46. A four quadrant operation requires-
a) two full converters in series
b) two full converters connected back to back
c) two full converters connected in parallel
d) two semi converters connected back to back
Answer is :-two full converters connected back to back


47. If for a single phase half bridge inverter, the amplitude of output voltage is Vs and the output power is P, then their corresponding values for a single phase full bridge inverter are ?
a) Vs, P
b) Vs/2, P
c) 2Vs, 2P
d) 2Vs, P
Answer is :- 2Vs, 2P


48. In an enhancement type MOSFET the output V-I characteristics has ?
a) only an ohmic region
b) only a saturation region
c) only ohmic region at 10 W voltage value followed by a saturation region at higher voltages
d)an ohmic region at large voltage values preceded by a saturation region at lower voltages
Answer is :- only ohmic region at 10 W voltage value followed by a saturation region at higher voltages


49. The energy gap in a semiconductor -
a) increases with temperature
b) remains constant
c) slightly increase with temperature
d) decrease with temperature
Answer is :-decrease with temperature


50. In an electronic circuit matching means -
a) connecting a high impedance directly to low impedance
b) selection of components which are compatible
c) transferring maximum amount of signal between different kinds of circuits.
d) RC coupled stages
Answer is :-transferring maximum amount of signal between different kinds of circuits.


51. P channel FETs are less superior than N channel FETs because
a) They have higher input impedance
b) They have high switching time
c) They consume less power
d) Mobility of electrons is greater than that of holes
Answer is :- Mobility of electrons is greater than that of holes


52. Small increase in temperature in the CE connected transistor is the -
a) Increase in ICEO
b) Increase in ac current gain
c) Decrease in ac current gain
d) Increase in output resistance
Answer is :- Increase in ICEO


53. An amplifier has a band width of 20 KHz and a midband gain of 50 without feedback. If a negative feedback of 1% is applied then bandwidth with feedback is -
a) 13. 3 KHz
b) 30KHz
c) 10KHz
d) 40KHz
Answer is :- 30KHz


54. The output of a class B amplifier -
a) is distortion free
b) consists of positive half cycles only
c) is like the output of a full wave rectifier
d) comprises short duration current pulses
Answer is :- consists of positive half cycles only


55. An amplifier with negative feedback -
a) lowers its lower 3 dB frequency
b) raises its upper 3 dB frequency
c) increases its bandwidth
d) all of the above
Answer is :- all of the above

 

 

Thanks for reading my Article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

Some Personal Interview questions for INTERVIEW Preparations

19/06/2011 16:53

In campus drive the HR Manager ask some questions regarding to personal interview. Here some of the questions are as follows...


Tell me about yourself.
Why should I hire you?
What are your strengths and weaknesses?
Why do you want to work at our company? 
What is the difference between confidence and over confidence?
What is the difference between hard work and smart work?
How do you feel about working nights and weekends?
Can you work under pressure?
Are you willing to relocate or travel?
What are your goals?
What motivates you to do good job?
What makes you angry?
Give me an example of your creativity.
How long would you expect to work for us if hired?
Are not you overqualified for this position?
Describe your ideal company, location and job.
What are your career options right now?
Explain how would be an asset to this organization?
What are your outside interests?
Would you lie for the company?
Who has inspired you in your life and why?
What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?
Have you considered starting your own business?
How do you define success and how do you measure up to your own definition?
If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work?
Tell me something about our company.
How much salary do you expect?
Where do you see yourself five years from now?
On a scale of one to ten, rate me as an interviewer.
Do you have any questions for me?

 

 

 

Thanks for Reading my Article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

Some Group Discussion Topics for INTERVIEW Preparations

19/06/2011 15:27

Go through this GD topics please have a glance with them

 

1. Indian cultural values have nothing to fear from globalization
2. The impact of economic reforms has been that rich people have become richer rich and poor people poorer.
3. Management education is only for the rich.
4. Reservation in parliament for women.
5. The US dollar is no longer a stable currency.
6. The impact of Internet on India.
7. Behind every man there is a woman.
8. Politicians are not interested in the future of our country.
9. Wisdom does not come with age.
10. Corruption is the main outcome of democracy.
11. Is the consumer really the King in India?
12. Globalization verses Nationalism.
13. Conditional access system for cable TV watchers: boon or bane?
14. If India is poorly governed, the reason is that we have designed our system of governance for protecting if not encouraging corruption.
15. Commercialization of health care: good or bad?
16. Should agricultural subsidies be stopped?
17. Do we lag behind China? Che tanaS
18. Who says MNCs are superior to Indian companies?
19. Food comes first, ethics later!
20. To survive in the civilized world one needs to be a hypocrite.
21. Money is the sixth sense without which one can’t enjoy the other five.
22. English language as a mode of instruction in primary level.
23. Men and Women are different.
24. Given the present state of affairs, India will remain a developing country forever.
25. IIM’s and IIT’s encourage only brain drain.
26. Whether reservation to women is beneficial?
27. There is no alternative to Pokhran nuclear test in present scenario.
28. Modern cinema is a boon to Indian society.
29. Should youth indulge in politics?
30. US war on Iraq-justified or not.
31. Role of UN in peacekeeping.
32. Position of Women in India compared to other nations.
33. Environment Management.
34. Is China better than India in software?
35. Should SONIA Gandhi be made the PM
36. BPOs in INDIA
37. Govt contribution to IT
38. Will punch lines rule the Advertisements?
39. premarital sex
40. India or west , which is the land of opportunities
41. water resources should be nationalized
42. "BALANCE BETWEEN PROFESSIONALISM AND FAMILY"
43. Is it necessary to ban COCOCOLA in India?
44. About Hockey being the primary game in India.
45. Cricket should be banned or not.
46. Present state of Indian Cricket team.
47. Love marriage/Arranged marriage.
48. Advantages of Co-education.
49. How to deal with international terrorism.
50. Is peace and non-violence outdated concepts?
51. A Unipolar World spells disaster for underdeveloped countries like India.
52. What shall we do about our ever-increasing Population?
53. Corruption is the price we pay for Democracy.
54. Foreign Television Channels are destroying our culture.
55. What India needs is a Dictatorship.
56. With media publishing and telecasting trivia, censorship is the need of the hour.
57. Kaun Banega Krorepati is less about knowledge but more about money and personality.
58. Beauty contests degrade womanhood
59. The rise of regional blocs threatens independent nations like India
60. Six billion and one bronze!
61. Is dependence on computers a good thing?
62. Should the public sector be privatized?
63. Is India a Soft Nation?
64. Value based politics is the need of the hour
65. Religion should not be mixed with politics
66. How to deal with high oil prices
67. Our cricketers are not to blame for match fixing
68. Why can’t we be world players in industry as we are in software?
69. Multinational corporations: Are they devils in disguise?
70. Should there be limits on artistic freedom (the controversy on Fire).
71. Should there be private universities?
72. Do banning fashion shows and New Year parties save our culture?
73. Are Big Dams Necessary? Che tanaS
74. A Gandhian State selling liquor is an anomaly
75. Bride burning and dowry may look bad, but are an integral part of India.
76. The education system needs serious reforms
77. The impact of MTV on our psyche
78. Showing Violence and Crimes should not be allowed in films and on television.
79. Let us legalize gambling
80. The objective of Management is to maximize profits
81. Do professional managers have a chance in our family run businesses?
82. The Internet is an exercise in hype
83. Smaller businesses and start-ups have more scope for professional growth.
84. Dot com or doubt com?
85. The Wheel is Turning Round and Round
86. There is no right way to do a wrong thing
87. Group Task: How can we have Mount Everest in India?
88. Do Beauty and Brains Go Together?
89. Marriage is a social trap
90. Secularism has become a tool to justify the wrongs done by the minorities.
91. Media is a mixed blessing/How ethical is media?
92. To fight Aids, stop being coy about sex education.
93. What should India strive for- Westernization or modernization?
94. Developing countries need trade, not aid.
95. Flexibility of labor laws is the key to attracting more Foreign Direct Investment.
96. Voters, not, political parties are responsible for the criminalization of politics.
97. The voters are required to be well informed and educated about their candidates so that they can elect the right aspirant by their own assessment.
98. India should go for the presidential form of democracy.
99. In our economic matters, there is an excessive tendency towards the thinking rather than doing. http://www.ChetanaSinterview.com
100. Government should clean its own hands before pointing finger at the private sector for corruption.
101. Is the NPA ordinance too harsh?
102. Reforms have to grow up.
103. Is the consumer really the king in India?.
104. If India is poorly governed, the reason is that we have designed our system of governance for protecting, if not encouraging, corruption?
105. Commercialization of health care: Good or Bad?
106. Is the US economy headed the Japanese economy way?
107. Economic freedom not old fashioned theories of development will lead to growth and prosperity.
108. Markets left to themselves encourage greed.
109. For globalization to succeed in India people must be able to see what is in it for them.
110. Should businessmen run the finance ministry
111. Should important services like transport be left to market forces?
112. Is there any point in having a business strategy when the world changes from month to month?
113. Is the patents bill good for India?.
114. Globalization is good for developing countries
115. Public sector being a guarantor of job security is a myth
116. Is industry less growth here to stay?
117. Capitalism is a very flawed system but the others are so much worse?
118. How can business get rid of the bad name that it has earned?
119. Government pumping money into the economy is not the solution for our economic problems
120. Business ethics are no longer a luxury for corporates but a necessity?
121. How should privatization proceeds be utilized?
122. Will Mumbai’s film industry ever evolve into a truly modern corporatised one?
123. Why not use a brand index to measure national prosperity?.
124. What we need to reduce scams is better regulatory bodies.
125. War rhetoric is misplaced in a country like India which is trying to globalize its economy.
126. Trade can help the poor ?
127. Steal a few lakhs and you’re a criminal. Steal a few hundred crores and you become an industrialist.
128. Managerial skills learnt in the classroom can never match those learnt from experience
129. Democracy is hampering India progress http://www.ChetanaSinterview.com
130. Religion is a private affair and should be of no concern for the state
131. Decreasing defense expenditure and increasing social expenditure is the need of the hour
132. Joint family is a blessing in disguise.
133. Higher education should be made possible only for those who can pay for it.
134. The weaker sex is the weakness of the stronger sex.
135. Women cannot successfully combine both career and home.
136. Developing countries should spend more on development than on defense.
137. Money is required to earn more money.
138. Classical Music Heritage And The Growing Pop-Culture
139. Nice Guys Finish Last
140. All Work And No Play Makes Jack A Dull Boy
141. Bullet For Bullet: Is It The Right Policy?
142. Should India Break Diplomatic Ties With Pakistan?
143. Age and Youth: Experience And Young Talent
144. East Is East & West Is Where All The Action Is’: Mark Twain
145. India Needs Gujral Doctrine For Better International Relations
146. Doctors’ Accountability To Improve Health-Care
147. Universal Disarmament Is A Must
148. Indian Cricket Team Shouldn’t Be Allowed To Play Abroad

 

Thanks for reading my article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

How to protect ur computer from Hackers & internet Hijackers

19/06/2011 15:13

Hackers and Browser Hijacking is one area of the Net that affects everyone at some stage.

In addition to having third party utilities such as SpyBot, Anti Virus scanners and firewalls installed there are some changes that can be made to Windows 2000/XP/Vista/Windows 7. Below are some details to make your system safer from hackers and hijackers.

Some of these tips require editing of the Registry so it is wise to either backup the registry and/or create a Restore Point.

1. Clearing the Page File at Shutdown

Windows paging file (Sometimes called the Swap File) can contain sensitive information such as plaintext passwords. Someone capable of accessing your system could scan that file and find its information. You can force windows to clear out this file.

In the registry navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerMemory Management and add or edit the DWORD ClearPageFileAtShutdown. Set it to 1.

Note that when you do this, the system will take much longer to shut down: a system with a really big Page File (! Gig or more) may take a minute or two longer.

2. Disable the POSIX and OS/2 Subsystem.

Windows come with little-documented subsystems it at allow compatibility with UNIX and OS/2 systems These rues systems are enabled by default but so rarely used that they are best off bring disabled completely to prevent possible service hijackings.

To disable these subsystems, open the registry and navigate to HKEY LOCAL MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerSubSystems. Delete the subkeys Os2 and Posix. then reboot.

3. Never leave default passwords blank.

On installation, Windows sets up an Administrator account with total system access and prompts for a password. Guess what: by default, it allows that password to be blank. If a user doesn't want to type a password, he can simply click Next and the system will be an open door for anyone who wants to log on. Always opt for a password of some kind when setting up the default account on a machine.

4. Disable the Guest account


Windows comes with a Guest account that's used for limited access, but it's still possible to do some damage with it. Disable it completely if you are not using it. Under Control Panel, select User Accounts, click on Guest Account and then select Turn Off the Guest Account.
 

5. Install Windows In a different directory.

Windows usually installs itself in the WINDOWS directory. Windows Will opt for WINNT. Many worms and other rogue programs assume this to be the case and attempt to exploit those folders files. To defeat this install Windows to another directory when you're setting it up - you can specify the name of the directory during setup. WINDIR is okay; so some people use WNDWS - A few (not that many) programs may not install properly if you install Windows to another folder but t hey are very few and they are far between

 

6. Fake out hackers with a dummy Administrator account.

Since the default account in Windows is always named Administrator, an enterprising hacker can try to break into your system by attempting to guess the password on that account. It you never bothered to put a password on that account, say your prayers.

Rather than be a sucker to a hacker, put a password on the Administrator account it you haven't done so already. Then change the name of the Administrator account. You'll still be able to use the account under its new name, since Windows identifies user accounts by a back-end ID number rather than the name. Finally, create a new account named Administrator and disable it. This should frustrate any would -be break-ins.

You can add new accounts and change the names of existing accounts in Windows through the Local Users and Groups snap in. Right-click on My Computer, select Manager, open the Local Users and Groups subtree, look in the Users folder and right-click on any name to rename it. To add a new user, right-click on the containing folder and select New User. Finally, to disable an account, double-click it, check the Account is disabled box and click OK.

Don't ever delete the original Administrator account. Some programs refuse to install without it and you might have to log in under that account at some point to setup such software. The original Administrator account is configured with a security ID that must continue to be present in the system.

7. Set the Hosts file to read-only to prevent name hijacking.

This one's from (and to a degree, for) the experts. The HOSTS file is a text file that all flavors of Windows use to hold certain network addresses that never change. When a network name and address is placed in HOSTS, the computer uses the address listed there for that network name rather than performing a lookup (which can take time). Experts edit this file to place their most commonly-visited sites into it, speeding things up considerably.

Unfortunately hijackers and hackers also love to put their own information into it - redirecting people from their favorite sites to places they don't want to go. One of the most common entries in HOSTS is local host which is set 1770.0.1. This refers to the local machine and if this entry is damaged the computer can behave very unpredictably.

To prevent HOSTS from being hijacked, set it to read-only. Go to the folder %Systemroot%system32driversetc, right-click on HOSTS, select Properties check the Read-Only box and click OK. If you want to add your own entries to HOSTS, you can unprotect it before doing so, but always remember to set it to read-only after you're done.

8. Turn off unneeded Services


Windows both come with many background services that don't need to he running most of the time: Alerter, Messenger, Server (If you're running a standalone machine with no file or printer shares), NetMeeting Remote Desktop Sharing, Remote Desktop Help Session Manager (the last two if you're not using Remote Desktop or NetMeeting), Remote Registry, Routing and Remote Access (if you're not using Remote Access), SSDP Discovery Service, Telnet, and Universal Plug and Play Device Host.
A good resource and instruction on which of these services can be disabled go to /http://www.blkviper.com/WinXP/
 

9. Disallow changes to IE settings through IE


This is another anti hijacker tip. IE can be set so that any changes to its settings must be performed through the Internet icon in the Control Panel, rather than through IE's own interface. Some particularly unscrupulous programs or sites try to tamper with setting by accessing the Tools, Options menu in IE. You can disable this and still make changes to IE's settings through the Control Panel.

Open the Registry and browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER SoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftInternet ExplorerRestrictions. Create or edit a new DWORD value named NoBrowserUptions and set it to 1 (this is a per-user setting). Some third-party programs such as Spybot Search And Destroy allow you to toggle this setting.

You can also keep IE from having other programs rename its default startup page, another particularly annoying form of hijacking. Browse to HKEY.CURRENT USERSoftwarePolicies MicrosoftInternet ExploreControl Panel and add or edit a DWORD, Homepage and set it to 1.


10. Disable simple File Shares.


In Windows XP Professional, the Simple File Sharing mode is easily exploited, since it? a little too easy to share out a file across your LAN (or the NET at large). To turn it off, go m My Computer, click Tools, Folder Option and the View tab, and uncheck Use Simple file sharing (Recommended). Click OK. When you do this you can access the Security tab in the Properties window for all folders; set permissions for folders; and take ownership of objects (but not in XP Home).

 

Thanks for reading my Article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

Hack Windows XP "start" button

17/06/2011 18:02

Download Resource Hacker from the internet.

First Step:

The first step is to make a backup copy of the file explorer.exe located at C:\Windows\explorer. Place it in a folder somewhere on your hard drive where it will be safe. Start Resource Hacker and open explorer.exe located at C:\Windows\explorer.exe
The category we are going to be using is String Table In Resource Hacker. Expand it by clicking the plus sign then navigate down to and expand string 37
followed by highlighting 1033. If you are using the Classic Layout rather than the XP Layout, use number 38. We’re going to modify item 578, currently
showing the word “start” just as it displays on the current Start button.
Just double click on the word “start” so that it’s highlighted, making sure the quotation marks are not part of the highlight. They need to
remain in place, surrounding the new text that you’ll type. Go ahead and type your new entry

Second Step:

Modify the Registry Now that the modified explorer.exe has been created it’s necessary to modify the registry so the file will be recognized when the user logs on
to the system. If you don’t know how to access the registry I’m not sure this article is for you, but just in case it’s a temporary memory lapse, go to Start (soon to be something else) Run and type regedit in the Open: field. Navigate to:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows NT\ CurrentVersion\ Winlogon

Double click the Shell entry to open the Edit String dialog box. In Value data: line, enter the name that was used to save the modified explorer.exe file. Click OK.

Close Registry Editor and either log off the system and log back in, or reboot the entire system if that’s your preference. If all went as planned you should see
your new Start button with the revised text.
 

 

 

Thanks for Reading my Article...

 Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor

17/06/2011 17:58

Hypertext Preprocessor or PHP as it is generally known, is a popular, Open Source all-purpose scripting language that is suited for Web development and embedded into HTML. PHP differs from Perl or C scripting languages by using special start and end tags that enclose the code, allowing the programmer to freely move in and out of “PHP mode”. PHP is distinguishable from client-side JavaScript because the code is executed on the server. The client receives the script results without being able to determine the underlying code. Configuring the web server to process all HTML files with PHP allows for safer and more secure scripting possibilities.

PHP is a simple and easy to use scripting language for a beginner developer but offers professional programming options and advanced features. PHP is focused on server-side scripting but has many more possibilities within designing, building, testing and deploying PHP sites. The syntax of PHP is similar to C, Java and Pearl and allows the web developer to create code for dynamically generated web pages in a quick and simple manner.

Although the main target field for PHP is server-side scripting, PHP can also be used for command line scripting and writing desktop applications. Tutorials include overviews and specific information on file manipulation, arrays, strings, functions, operators, variables, data types and installation for PHP. PHP is versatile and can be used with Linux, Unix, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and other operating systems. PHP supports many web servers and the developer can choose whether to use PHP as a procedural programming or object-oriented programming tool.

 

Thanks for reading my Article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

Silver Light

17/06/2011 17:30

The Internet has evolved to the point where many people today are using it for all their communication needs. With the rapidly changing communication tools of today, people can make appointments over the web, or even shop for groceries and find answers to their questions.

Competition among companies is very stiff over the Internet, as you only have a few moments to capture the attention of potential customers. When it comes to presentations, companies are now making use of animation, videos, and even vector graphics to increase the digital experience of the user.

This has led to an increase in demand for the construction of vivid media experiences which are combined with applications that are highly interactive. This resulted in introduction of Microsoft Silver Light, a multiple browser and platform plugin that offers a highly advanced .NET media experience.

In addition to this, Microsoft Silver Light also offers RIAs, or Rich Interactive Applications. One feature which is unique to MS Silver Light is that it is totally self contained, and it is not dependent on other products like Windows Media Player when it comes to video playback. You should also note that MS Silver Light is also not dependent on the .NET Framework 3.0.

There are a number of features which make Silver Light quite impressive. First off, it can dramatically enhance the appearance of applications, making use of media, animation, text, and even vector based graphics.

Silver Light offers content which is not only rich, but also immersive, and it fits perfectly within the environment for web development. By making use of Silver Light, your website can be given a personal touch, no matter what type of enterprise you operate.
Of all the ways in which ideas can be presented over the web, Microsoft Silver Light is one of the most powerful and robust. When it comes to web development solutions for your business, the possibilities that Silver Light offers you are unlimited, but to fully understand its potential, it is first important to become familiar with Rich Interactive Applications.

 

 

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 Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

Neuro Linguistic Programming

17/06/2011 17:16

NLP is a system co-founded by John Grinder and Richard Bandler for bringing about personal development in any individual by interpreting and translating the human perception, experience, beliefs and language. It was developed in early 1970s with the active involvement of Gregory Bateson. Gregory Bateson was a distinguished anthropologist, linguist, social scientist and a cyberneticist at the University of California at Santa Cruz between the periods of 1960s to1970s.

The basic principle of neuro linguistic programming is that success can be achieved by increasing the positive habits and reducing the negative ones. These positive habits either can belong to the same individual, or can be a model of habits of highly successful people. The initial study of interpreting success patterns and behaviors was done on exceptional psychotherapists who were had attained the zenith of success in their field. Neuro linguistic course started with the modeling the key behaviors and methods taken by the psychotherapists in order to achieve outstanding outcomes in their field. This model would then be applied to individual wanting to achieve a similar level of success and excellence.

 

Thanks for reading my Article...

Warm Regards,

Soumya Sourabha Patnaik(SSP)

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