Search Engine Optimization

21/02/2012 17:19




A search engine is specially designed to search for information and resources on the WWW and FTP servers. The information and the resources may consists of WebPages, images, files, documents or any other items. Some search engine also provides data mining in data bases and open directories. Some examples of search engines are:

Google, Bing, Altavista, Inbox, Ask, Yahoo, AOL, Baidu, Lycos, MSN search etc.


Types of Various Search Engine


Brief Description About Search Engines:



Google has a well-deserved reputation as the top choice for those searching the web. The crawler-based service provides both comprehensive coverage of the web along with great relevancy. It's highly recommended as a first stop in your hunt for whatever you are looking for.



Launched in 1994, Yahoo is the web's oldest "directory," a place where human editors organize web sites into categories. However, in October 2002, Yahoo made a giant shift to using Google's crawler-based listings for its main results.


MSN Search/Bing or

Microsoft is known for constantly reworking its software products until they get them right, and MSN Search is a shining example of the company putting that same effort into an online product. In particular, the company has its own team of editors that monitors the most popular searches being performed and then hand-picks sites that are believed to be the most relevant. After performing a search, "Popular Topics" shown below the search box on the results page are also suggestions built largely by editors to guide you into making a more refined search. When appropriate, search results may also feature links to encyclopedia content from Microsoft Encarta or news headlines, at the top of the page.


AOL Search (internal) or

AOL Search provides users with editorial listings that come Google's crawler-based index. Indeed, the same search on Google and AOL Search will come up with very similar matches. So, why would you use AOL Search? Primarily because you are an AOL user. The "internal" version of AOL Search provides links to content only available within the AOL online service. In this way, you can search AOL and the entire web at the same time. The "external" version lacks these links. Why wouldn't you use AOL Search? If you like Google, many of Google's features such as "cached" pages are not offered by AOL Search.


Ask Jeeves

Ask Jeeves initially gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as being the "natural language" search engine that let you search by asking questions and responded with what seemed to be the right answer to everything.



AltaVista is the oldest crawler-based search engine on the web. It opened in December 1995 and for several years was the "Google" of its day, in terms of providing relevant results and having a loyal group of users that loved the service.


Netscape Search

Owned by AOL Time Warner, Netscape Search uses Google for its main listings, just as does AOL's other major search site, AOL Search. So why use Netscape Search rather than Google? Unlike with AOL Search, there's no compelling reason to consider it. The main difference between Netscape Search and Google is that Netscape Search will list some of Netscape's own content at the top of its results. Netscape also has a completely different look and feel than Google. If you like either of these reasons, then try Netscape Search. Otherwise, you're probably better off just searching at Google.

An excellent crawler-based search engine, All The Web provides both comprehensive coverage of the web and outstanding relevancy. If you tried Google and didn't find it, All The Web should probably be next on your list. Indeed, it's a first stop search engine, for some. In addition to web page results, provides the ability to search for news stories, pictures, video clips, MP3s and FTP files.



HotBot provides easy access to the web's four major crawler-based search engines:, Google, Inktomi and Teoma, all of which are described elsewhere on this page. Nevertheless, it's a fast, easy way to get different web search "opinions" in one place.



Lycos is one of the oldest search engines on the web, launched in 1994. It ceased crawling the web for its own listings in April 1999 and instead uses crawler-based results provided by AllTheWeb.



Teoma is a crawler-based search engine owned by Ask Jeeves. It has a smaller index of the web than its rival crawler-competitors Google,, Inktomi and AltaVista.



Among the major search engines, Inktomi is the second-oldest crawler. It briefly operated as an experimental search engine at UC Berkeley. However, the creators then formed their own company in 1996 with the same name and gained their first customer, HotBot, in the middle of that year. The company then pursued a strategy of "powering" other search engines, rather than running its own branded service for the public.



LookSmart is a human-compiled directory of web sites. The company does operate its own web site, but this really isn't intended for the public to use. Instead, similar to Inktomi, LookSmart provides its results to other search engines that need listings.


Open Directory

The Open Directory uses volunteer editors to catalog the web. Formerly known as NewHoo, it was launched in June 1998. It was acquired by AOL Time Warner-owned Netscape in November 1998, and the company pledged that anyone would be able to use information from the directory through an open license arrangement.



Formerly called GoTo until late 2001, Overture is an extremely popular paid placement search engine that provides ads to many of the search engines listed above.



Like Teoma, WiseNut is a crawler-based search engine that attracted attention when it appeared on the scene in 2001. Like Teoma, WiseNut features good relevancy. Unlike Teoma, WiseNut has a large database, making it nearly as comprehensive as Google, AllTheWeb and Inktomi. However, the WiseNut database has consistently been months out of date. The search engine is supposed to be regularly updated sometime in 2003, when WiseNut's owner LookSmart is promising to revamp the engine. LookSmart bought WiseNut in April 2002. If the revamp happens, then WiseNut may deliver on its initial promise.


Performance of Search Engine


The search engine maintain real-time information by running algorithms on a web crawler.

Let us consider about the performance of Search engine:

Search engines perform several activities in order to deliver search results



It is the process of fetching all the web pages linked to a web site. This task is performed by software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, as is the case with Google).



It is the process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page to particular keywords.



When a search request comes, the search engine processes it . i.e. it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database.


Calculating Relevancy:

Since it is likely that more than one pages contains the search string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index to the search string.


Retrieving Results:

The last step in search engines' activities is retrieving the best matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! often update their relevancy algorithm dozens of times per month. When you see changes in your rankings it is due to an algorithmic shift or something else outside of your control.

Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor differences between their relevancy algorithms lead to major changes in results relevancy.


Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

SEO  is the technique of writing the viewable text on a web page in such a way that it reads well for the surfer, and also targets specific search terms. Its purpose is to rank highly in the search engines for the targeted search terms.

As well as the viewable text, SEO Copywriting usually optimizes other on-page elements for the targeted search terms. These include the Title, Description and Keywords tags, headings and alt text.

The idea behind SEO Copywriting is that search engines want genuine content pages and not additional pages (often called "doorway pages") that are created for the sole purpose of achieving high rankings.


Search Engine Rank:

When you search any keyword using a search engine then it displays thausand of results found in its database. A page ranking is measured by the position of web pages displayed in the search engine results. If Search engine is putting your web page on first position then your web page rank will be number 1 and it will be assumed as with a high rank.

SEO is the process of designing and developing a web site to attend a high rank in search engine results.


On-page and Off-page SEO

Conceptually, there are two ways of doing SEO

On-Page SEO- This includes providing good content, good keywords selection. putting keywords on correct places, giving appropriate title to every page etc.

Off-Page SEO - This includes link building, increasing link popularity by submitting in open directories, search engines, link exchange tec.


Popular Search Engine 2012 Rank

  1. Google (900,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  2. Bing (165,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  3. Yahoo! (160,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  4. Ask (125,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  5. Aol (33,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  6. Mywebsearch (19,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  7. Lycos(4,300,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  8. Dogpile (2,900,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  9. Webcrawler (2,700,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  10. (2,600,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  11. Infospace(2,000,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  12. Goodsearch (1,500,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  13. (1,450,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  14. Excite (1,150,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)
  15. Altavista (700,000 Estimated Unique Monthly Visitors)

These are the popular search engines in the recent year 2012.



Article by:

Er. Soumya Sourabha Patnaik